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What about images?

What about images?

In this assignment, you are to develop 15 slides or less and present your paper as a PPT. Here is a suggestion for building your presentation: Introduction to the clinical problem. purpose or clinical question addressed, methods, results, and recommendations for future research and current practice.

I have attached the guidelines for this PPT assignment.

I have attached an older presentation I delivered at the University of Rochester on behalf of a EBP team. In my current critique of this PPT, I would have added citation to the slides and some images. I think the methods of literature search needs clarification.

Look at this–> (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.


Q: Should I use APA format?

A: For this course yes. If you were presenting at a conference, you would prepare the presentation according to guidelines of that conference. One of the tricks–>reduce the font size of the in-text citation.

Q: What font should I use?

A: I like Arial or Calibi. I often change the slide master to accommodate this change.

Q: How many lines per slide?

A: About 8 is fine for readability reasons. The fewer words the better. If this were a true oral presentation, your speaking should enhance the PPT slide and not repeat the slide content.

Q: What about images?

A: I use few images for research presentations for several reasons: (a) Copyright laws (so must purchase right to image or seek formal permission), (b) Cross-cultural Considerations, and (c) Space limitations (often this kind of presentation requires the PPT to be a “Take-Away” handout so pressed to add more words). Images must be purposeful. Be selective. I always try to think back about presentations I have enjoyed. Often an image that represents a personal/professional moment is at the end of a PPT to highlight acknowledgments.

Q: Do I need references slide?

A: Yes. You can use smaller font for a references list too.


Presentation – Recommendations for Practice and Research Rubric.doc

Presentation Peer Review.docx

PsychDebrief EBP.ppt

NGR6812 Presentation-Summary of the Evidence and Recommendations for Practice and Research.docx

NGR6812 Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice


Once you have reviewed various sources of evidence about the practice issue you have identified, you will for this assignment present a synthesis of the literature that you used to complete your evidence table. This assignment should be in a PPT format. The presentation should start with an introduction to the problem including a definition, the prevalence of the problem, the significance of the problem to patients and nurses, and the PICOT question. The presentation should also include a summary of the evidence that you found, and based on your evaluation of the evidence, you will make recommendations for practice change, using one of the evidence-based practice model, and for future research.

The purpose of looking at research is to review/analyze data that was obtained in a systematic way that could be used to support a change in practice. Therefore, practice recommendations in your presentation need to be firmly grounded in the evidence that you have reviewed and presented. For example, if you are interested in improving metabolic control for patients with diabetes, you will review research studies that tested interventions to help patients maintain metabolic control. You would not recommend home visits as an EBP intervention unless one of your selected studies involved the use of home visits by nurses as an intervention. The final part of the presentation should be a closing statement(s) in which you draw a conclusion about what you have learned.

The presentation must reflect the APA Publishing Manual 6th edition format and include a title slide and a reference slide. The presentation should include seven references from your paper (2 research articles, 2 summary of the evidence articles, and 2 references from the professional literature).

See the Assignments Button for the PowerPoint presentation grading rubric.

Grading Rubric: Recommendations for Practice and Research PowerPoint slides (10 points/10% of grade)






3 Points

The presentation includes an introduction to a nursing problem or issue. The problem or issue is adequately defined, the prevalence is clearly stated and the significance of the problem including the PICOT question is fully described.Appropriate references are used to support the significance and prevalence of the problem.

2 Points

There is an identification of a nursing problem or issue, but it is not well defined and/or its significance and prevalence is not well stated. The references used in the introduction include the articles reviewed for this presentation or are not from professional sources or not relevant to the topic.

0 Points

Central problem not identified.

Recommendations for Practice/Research

4 Points

Specific recommendations for practice change using an evidence-based practice model is clearly stated and are firmly grounded in quality and level of the evidence reviewed. The evidence used to support the recommendations is clearly made

3 Points

Recommendations for practice change are not clearly described, the evidence-based model is incorrectly used and the recommendation stated is not firmly grounded in the evidence reviewed.

The support for the recommendations is not clear.


0 Points

Recommendations may be present but is likely to be only a few lines of summary.

Demonstrates serious inadequacy.



2 Points

The closing statement(s) in the conclusion clearly stated what you have learned.

The recommendation for practice change is based on the evidence reviewed in the evidence table.

1 Point

There is limitations in presentation for the practice change.

The practice change is not based on the evidence reviewed in the evidence table.

0 Points

There is no presentation of the guideline, protocol, or policy in relation to the evidence reviewed in the evidence table.



Demonstrates full control of APA format and style including proper citation format.

Virtually free of sentence level errors: grammatical, typographical, and word choice.

0.5 Point

Adequately adheres to APA forms and style including proper citation format, with likely deviations and lapses.

May contain some consistent patterns of sentence level error: grammatical, typographical, and word choice. Pervasiveness of error does not impede comprehension.

0 Points

Presentation demonstrates serious inadequacy in APA/grammar


A Systematic Review for Nurse-Patient Ratio and Patient Outcome

Denis Williams

Florida Atlantic University


Fatal problems which seemingly plagues many hospitals and other medical facilities at a national and global level is related to staffing issues. Inadequate staffing of nurses includes improper ratios of nurses to the level of patient acuity and improper mixture of skilled experienced nurse’s verses inexperienced younger but more educated nurses. For example, consider a 62 bed Med-Surge unit with staffing ratios of 1:6 on nights, 1:4 on days and four patient care technicians verses routine staffing ratios of 1:7 on nights and 1:6 on days with two patient care technicians. The Labor Management Institute and the National Data base for Nursing Quality Indicators guide for staffing suggest ratios of 1:4 or 1:5 on medical-surgical units, 1:3 or 1:4 on intermediate units and 1:2 in intensive care units (AORN, 2013).

Research demonstrates statistically how inadequate nursing staffed unit’s results in adverse events, such as: falls, medication errors, needle sticks and injuries to nursing staff (Loan, Patrician, & West, 2012). Realistic cases were presented to illustrate how staffing inadequacy is a potential and hazardous threat. The threat is towards patients and nursing staff alike. The evidence can attest to the fact that to improve or reduce these adverse events, hospitals must provide adequate staffing. They must utilize the right mix of expertise and experience to appropriate patient acuity when assigning care. The most challenging sick patients should be assigned to nurses more equipped to manage such acuity of illness (Loan, Patrician, & West, 2012).

PICOT Question

Population: Inappropriate nurse-patient staffing ratio and Hospital In-Patient safety.

Intervention: According to AORN (2013) Nurse Staffing Ratios, the best practice to ensure adequate nurse patient ratio is:

1) Conduct a failure mode effect analysis on nurse staffing to develop strategies to use when staffing levels are not adequate 2) Creating an internal resource pool for flexibility and census adjustment 3) Communicating all action plans to staff nurses and administrative stakeholders;” 4) Empowering staffing ratios annually with other facilities 5) Correlating staffing with patient outcomes, adverse events, and root causes 6) Evaluating patient satisfaction feedback.

: A daily follow-up should be done on all shifts to assess the nurse/patient-ratio and shift performance. Any adverse events such as: patient’s falls, neglect, unrecognize decline in patient condition leading to codes; nursing staff issues, missing breaks or lunch, missed patient orders overwhelm staff, or nursing staffing remaining after punch out time to chart should be addressed (Loan, Patrician, & West, 2012).

Outcome: Is the care of patient symptoms and treatment impacted by an inadequate staffing, working environment or nursing workload? Do patients receive inadequate care due to poor nurse–patient staffing ratios? Does nurse staffing ratios impact patient mortality and morbidity? Are staff members taking shortcuts thus causing injury to themselves and negatively impacting patient care? How does nurse–patient staffing ratios affect patient readmissions?

Outcomes should be measured from first patient contact at registration in the emergency room, the length of stay, and discharge. Daily monitoring helps to determine patient satisfaction. Areas such as staff interactions, treatment regime, ADLs and other concerns can be addressed. In addition, discharged follow-up surveys can be completed in efforts to direct future care measures, to measure the effectiveness of provided care and the total outcome (Loan, Patrician, & West, 2012).


A systematic review of nurse-patient ratio and its impact on patient’s outcome was explored using Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses and Evidence Base Practices with Protocols and standards designed by the Joint Commission and Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (AORN, 2013). Mixed-effects regression models with sample data from multiple states that incorporates the Agency for Healthcare Research and quality (AHRQ), plus the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) collected for 12 months on patient satisfaction. (Abrahamson, Hass, Morgan, Fulton, & Ramanujam, 2016). Also initiated was a four-point Likert scale-type question for measuring job satisfaction, and a nine-item emotional exhaustion subscale of Maslach for measuring burnout; scores above twenty-seven was indication for emotional exhaustion (Aitken, Sloane, & Stimpfel, 2012 ).

Search Strategy

Medline/PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Ovid Online, ProQuest (a dissertation database), Cochrane Library, and Virginia Henderson International Nursing Library were used to search the literature. Search terms includes Nurse patient-ratio or under-staffing, nursing staff and quality of care, patient safety and nursing staff. Review was limited to North America and in English. Most review material were within the last five years with the exception of two articles. Reports published prior to 2011 were excluded from the review.

Literature Selection

Relevant articles and data was collected from reports to the Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Medicare and Medicaid. Extracted data were formatted into tables. Other reports were included in the studies. The studies were inclusive of writer’s name, date, year publish, study design, sample sizes and description, location of study and instrumentation used for data collection with results, recommendation for future research, and Limitations. Cross-sectional design (Aitken, Sloane, Stimpfel, 2012) and longitudinal models were used (Rochefort, Buckeridge, & Abrahamowicz, 2015).

Quality Assessment

In 2010, The Center for Medicare & Medicaid (CMS) initiated a value based policy which links reimbursement to hospitals with quality patient care; incentives are awarded to facilities for given higher quality care. The quality of care are clinical processes of patient care whereas HCAPS indicates scores and rewards by quality of care. Patient quality of care was measured via the assessment of HCAPS legitimate vendor PRESS Ganey Associates with English and Spanish Language (Abrahamson et al., 2016). Four adverse quality measures were also taken because of their hypothesized relation to nurse staffing levels, patient mortality, morbidity and cost. The four are Hospital Acquired Pneumonia, Ventilated Acquired Pneumonia, and Deep Vein Thrombosis of lower and upper extremities (Rochefort et al., 2015).


Study Characteristics, Samples, Settings

Samples included all adult medical, surgical and intensive care patient admitted to Mc Gill University Health Center during Januray1, 2010 and December 31, 2015. Patient were studied and assessed for adverse events during their inpatient stay and 7-days post discharge (Rochefort et al., 2015). In addition, 12 databases were queried from entrance to the hospital, including any procedure, incident reports and patrolled. Nurse staffing intensity was measured for each shift via payroll records (Rochefort et al., 2015). The data gleaned from sampling hospitals which were dispersed geographically (Abrahamson et al., 2016).

In this study a sample of 22,275 registered nurses were taken from multiple states of patient conditions and nursing care. Nurses were from 577 hospitals in California, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Florida with an average of 10 nurses per hospital. The sample was limited to medical, surgical and intensive care. All other units were excluded (Aitken, Sloane, & Stimpfel, 2012).

Major Variables

Variables from the response by survey were measured at the at hospital and unit level. Major correlated variables in HCAPS and AHRQ were teamwork, adequate staffing, and positive patient experience (Abrahamson et al., 2016). Variables used are organization features and hospital structural characteristics which are related to outcome (Aitken, Sloane, & Stimpfel, 2012 ).


One Study generated information which was evidence based and facilitated leaders, managers, managing care resources, identifying staffing patterns, and risk reduction of adverse events (Rochefort et al., 2015). Three crucial factors which influenced nursing experiences were teamwork, adequate staffing and the learning culture. Positive patient outcomes has a direct correlation between care rendered and the nurse’s approach. Nurses leaves an impression on the patient experience. When nurses are perceived as being in control, having adequate support and staffing then they can be the prime movers for safety and safely render adequate and cultural care (Abrahamson, et al., 2016). The longer the shift worked by nurses, the worst the patient outcome; the longer the hours worked by nurses, the more likely they are to leave the job (Aitken, Sloane, & Stimpfel, 2012). Staffing level is directly related to improved HCAPS levels; hospitals with better staffing has higher patient satisfaction in all areas (Martsolf, et al., 2016).


In one study, limitation was the method for measuring adverse events, it hampered the ability to identify policies related to nursing staff and the reduction of adverse events (Rochefort et al., 2015). In this study the sample was not a national representation. There was the likelihood of error due to the use of averages in the unit as oppose to individual measurement, and the exclusion of nurse’s job satisfaction (Abrahamson, et al., 2016).

The cross-sectional study limited the study to make inferences about nurse working hours verses patient outcomes. The sample from four states represented only a quarter of the US population and did not represent every hospital (Aitken, Sloane, & Stimpfel, 2012). Although multiple states were included in the study, 80 percent of data came from the state of California. This was related to the hospitals’ level analysis and the fact that nursing staff level couldn’t be cemented to an individual study. Therefore, temporal changes in nursing staff and patient outcome couldn’t be established due to static models used in the study (Martsolf et al., 2016).

Future Research

Future studies can expand to the present by including a combined unit mix with the inclusion of hospital magnet status influences on patient experience and nurse perception of adequate workloads (Abrahamson et al., 2016).

Clinical Relevance

This is the first study which modeled the strategies of nurse staffing as it related to the risk of adverse events with dynamic time exposure. The study identifies nurse patient ratio with the greatest risk and enable mangers to minimize risk while optimizing resources (Rochefort et al., 2015). The study will aid nurse mangers to adjust staffing to compensate for a dynamic work load; enhancement in staff assignment will improve communication, teamwork and a reduction in staff turnover (Abrahamson et al., 2016). The result of the study reveals to policy makers the need for change at national and local levels. The study suggests the need for hour reduction for working nurses and an improvement in staffing condition by accrediting bodies and Joint Commission. In 2011, the Joint Commission instituted nine evidence-based actions for shift hours and staff input in the implementation of work schedules (Aitken, Sloane, & Stimpfel, 2012). The study can be used by policymakers to make improvements in laws and policies, for maintaining optimum staffing and enhancing HCAPS scores (Martsolf et al., 2016).



According to Meyer & Clarke (2011) all patients risk of death increased by 2-5% for each shift where the patient’s unit was understaffed and by 4-7% for each shift with high turnover. In an article by Martin (2015) nursing job dissatisfaction was 4 times higher than the national average. Not only are nurses unhappy and willing to quit their jobs; their practicing ethics is questionably (Martin, 2015). It is believed that understaffing and nursing shortage impacts the principle of nursing practice. In June of 2010 the Senate and House passed the “Registered Nurse Safe Staffing Act” (Martin, 2015). The bill allowed nurses to voice concerns to the Courts about unsafe staffing, this protecting the nurse. A safe staffing ratio would increase patient satisfaction and reduce staff turnover. The prevailing thought among administrators is by increasing staff it would decrease profit. But contrarily, studies have shown that even though cost is increase, profitability is not affected due to the added benefit of reducing adverse event (Martin, 2015).


Abrahamson, K., Hass, Z., Morgan, K., Fulton, B., & Ramanujam, R. (2016). The relationship between nurse-reported safety culture and the patient experience. Journal of Nursing Administration, 46(12). 662-668.

Conley, S., & Redeker, N. (2016). A Systematic Review of Self-Management Interventions for Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 48(2), 118-127 110p. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12189.

Loan, L., Patrician, P., & West, G. (2012). Staffing matters-every shift. American Journal of Nursing, 112(12), 22-27. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000423501.155

Martin, C. J. (2015). The effects of nurse staffing on quality of care. MEDSURG Nursing, 24(2), 4-6.

Martsolf, G. R., Gibson, T. B., Benevent, R., Jiang, H. J., Stocks, C., Ehrlich, E. D., Kandrack, R., & Auerbach, D. I. (2016). An examination of hospital nurse staffing and patient experience with care: Differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates. Health Service Research and Educational Trust, 51, 2221–2241. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12462

Melnyk, B. M. & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2015). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health

Meyer, R. M., & Clarke, S. P. (2011). Shifts with nurse understaffing and high patient churn linked to heightened inpatient mortality risk in a single site study. Evidence Based Nursing, 14(4), 122-123. doi:10.1136/ebn.2011.100052

Needleman, J., Buerhaus, P., Pankratz, V. S., Leibson, C. L., Stevens, S. R. & Harris, M. (2011). Nurse staffing and inpatient hospital mortality. The New England Journal of Medicine, 364(11), 1037-45. doi:

Nurse Staffing Ratios. (2013). AORN Journal, 97(5), 604-538. doi:10.1016/j.aorn.2013 .02.011.

Rochefort, C. M., Buckeridge, D. L., & Abrahamowicz, M. (2015). Improving patient safety by optimizing the use of nursing human resources. Implementation Science, 10(1), 89. doi:10.1186/s13012-015-0278-1

Witkoski Stimpfel, A., Sloane, D. M., & Aiken, L. (2012). The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction. Health Aff (Millwood), 31(11), 2501-2509. doi:10.1277/hlthaff.2011.1377.

Table 1. Evaluation Table


Conceptual Framework



Major Variables & Definitions


of Variables

Data Analysis


Appraisal of Worth

Abrahamson, et al., 2016, The relationship between nurse-reported safety culture and the patient experience

To obtain a better understanding of the relationship between nurse-reported safety culture and patient experience

Regression model identified by hospital samples obtain from AHRQ Survey and HCAHPS patient satisfaction survey over a period of 12-months from units and hospital

Surveys were sent to patient by mailed and returned to PRESS GANEY/ A random sample was collected from each hospital

The sample comprises of 136 unit and 45 hospitals

Major variables were HCAHPS nursing communication subscales, patient recommendation to hospital, patient ratings of their hospital experienced

Independent Variables: teamwork, feedback, safety etc.

The 7-unit scales of safety of safety was used at the unit level with

Alpha ranges from 0.63 to 0.83 and 3 scales for measurement at the hospital level with an alpha range of 0.8 to 0.83

The mean number of units/service line/hospital was 3 with a range from 1 to 5

The 3 outcome variables used the nurse safety culture scales as predictor variable and controlling from hospital and unit

The findings reveal the relationship between teamwork, adequate staffing, organizational learning impacting a positive patient outcome

Sample not a national representation

The likelihood of error due to the use of averages in the unit as oppose to individual measurement

The exclusion of nurse’s job satisfaction


Loan, Patrician, & West, 2012, Staffing matters-every shift

To show that inadequately staffed shifts lends to adverse event such as pt. falls, mediation error and needle sticks for nurses

From 1996 to 2009 data from 111,500 shifts on 56 inpatients units in 13 U.S Army, Navy and Air force hospital collect and analyzed data from falls, medication errors and needle stick errors on quarterly basis

The number mix consisted of nursing personnel experiences on shift associated injuries like needle sticks

Variables used were work environment, nurse experience, education level, physician- nurse relationship

The percentage calculated from odd ratios from the Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression models

The probabilities were calculated using the base rate of 0.24 falls, o. o5 falls with injury and 0.67 medication errors

The MillNod model shows a 36% increased probability of a fall with injury because of a 10% decrease in RN on the shift

Difficult to generalized military data to a civilian hospital

Data from bargaining units was absent in study

Some variables may have to be adjusted when staffing adjusted but outcome remains the same


Martsolf, et al., 2016, An examination of hospital nurse staffing and patient experience with care

To study the relationship between hospital staffing and HCHPS

Cross-sectional and longitudinal models to determine staffing levels, skill mix and HCHPS measure

Hospital data collected from 2009 to 2011 from 341 hospital in 3 states

Control variables were discharged data

Dependent variables consisted of 7 HCHPS measures

A sensitivity analysis was used

A cross-sectional regression analysis was used

Nursing staff levels is associated with HCAHPS scores

The limitations, only 3 states were used

Nurse staffing levels could not be tied to individual patient

The Model could not control for unobservable time


Meyer, & Clarke, 2011, Shifts with nurse understaffing and high patient churn linked to heightened inpatient mortality risk in a single site study

To show increased risk of death due to unit conditions, nurse staffing and turn overs

An Observational study of unit characteristics and staffing levels

Data collected for the years from 2003 to 2006

197,961 patients with

51.4 % males

With a mean age of 60.2

Pediatrics excluded

80 % of population not


Variables included understaffing and high turnovers

Cox proportional-hazards regression models

with the time from hospital admission as the

time scale and in-hospital death as the outcome

An analysis was done between mortality levels of RN staffing a d other variables using COX

Variables ere pt. age, death, sex payer type,




Risk of death increased 2-5% for each shift where the patient’s unit was understaffed by 4-7% for each shift turnover

High patient turnover and

Under target

Nursing staff is related to death risk

The study can help shape payment system to increase nursing staff

Having adequate staffing and any factors impacting workload should be active in streamlining nursing care

IT was an observation study with confounding possibilities

Care delivery models excluded

Staff exclusive of RNs was excluded

Units Characteristics excluded

Factors contributing to death after the first 90 days of admission or death outside the hospital was excluded

Further studies needed to examine the relationship between RNs and other staff


AORN, 2013, Nurse Staffing Ratios

To reveal inappropriate nursing skill, mix and RN ratio can impact patient safety

THE information gleaned from a case study in the ICU with a male patient diagnose with COPD

Adapted from

AHRQ website

Patient outcome

And nursing staff

A report from AHQR

Recommendation, rules and protocols were implanted by the Institute of labor, ANA, JACHO, AND CMS about best nursing practice to perform the optimum results in patient outcome


Rochefort, Buckeridge, & Abrahamowicz, 2015, Improving patient safety by optimizing the use of nursing human resources

To determine the optimum nurse patient care to reduce Adverse Events

Data collected from 2010 to 2015 from medical and icu units all adult

To assess for AE from admission to 7 days after discharge

Data extracted from 12 data bases from admission to payroll

Variables used were RN overtime hours, Mean RN work experience

Cox proportional hazards regression models are used

The Natural language processing techniques was used to identify AEs

Statistical NLP used probability to classify documents

Descriptive statistics used to summarize staffing and relationship between Staffing ratios and HAP, VAP, and VTE

P< .001

Evidence base information was produce to assist


In having the

Ideal staffing ration to reduce AEs

Investigation of nursing policies impacting AEs was neglected

Policies USPSTF “A”

Stimpfel, Sloane, & The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction Aiken, 2012,

To show the relationship between extensive working hours for RNs, RNs burnout and patient outcome

A cross-sectional study from three sources using surveyed data from four states from 2005 to 2008

A sample of 22, 275 RNs from 4 state with a total of 577 hospital

Nurses not working directly with patients was deleted

Control variables

Were RNs age, sex, reasons for leaving

control for hospital type and difference in nursing care established

Subscales of the Practice Environmental Scale was used

Practice Environment scale of the Nursing Work Index was used

Data analyses by using the

Statistical software SAS, version 9.3.

Significance level was P<0.5 for a two-tailed test

Stats were shift length and nurse outcome, nurses, hospital type and RNs satisfaction

Findings correlate longer shift work with poor patient outcomes and nurse’s burnout

The importance of the finding important due to CMS incentive to healthcare institution for better outcome

The cross-sectional approach limits the study inference ability

Study is limited to four states

Can contribute to Changes by regulating and accrediting bodies

The study

Study approve by

Institutional review board of Pennsylvania with no harm to patient


LEGEND: AHRQ – Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

ANA – American Nursing Association

CMS – Centers for Medicare and Medicaid

JACHO- Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organization

HCAHPS – Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System

Pt. – Patients

MillNod – Military Nursing Outcomes Database

CMS- Center for Medicare and Medicaid

AE- Adverse events

NLP- Natural Order Processing




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