Understand the factors that influence access to and use of services available.
2b.4 Be able to conduct appropriate diagnostic or monitoring procedures, treatment, therapy or other actions safely and skilfully. Understand the need to maintain the safety of service users, and those involved in their care. Be able to perform and supervise scientific and technical procedures to reproducible standards. Be able to operate and utilise specialist equipment according to their discipline. Be able to validate scientific and technical data and observations according to pre-determined quality standards. Be able to demonstrate proficiency in liquid handling methodologies, preparation of standard solutions and buffers. Be able to demonstrate practical skills in instrumentation and techniques in: microscopy; spectroscopy; centrifugation; electrophoresis; chromatography; electroanalytical techniques; automated analysis; immunological techniques; enzyme assays and molecular biology techniques; sterilisation techniques and microbial culture; identification and quantitation of microorganisms; microtomy. Be able to demonstrate practical skills in the processing and analysis of specimens including specimen identification, the effect of storage on specimens and the safe retrieval of specimens. Be able to demonstrate practical skills in the investigation of disease processes. Be able to work in conformance with standard operating procedures and conditions. Be able to work with accuracy and precision. Be able to prepare reagents accurately and consistently. Be able to perform calibration and quality control checks. Be able to check that equipment is functioning within its specifications and to respond appropriately to abnormalities. Understand the implications of non-analytical errors. Be aware of the near-patient testing and non-invasive techniques. KNOWLEDGE Understand the need for standard laboratory procedures and diagnostic tests relevant to the patient under investigation. Understand the importance of reference ranges, the use of scientific units and quality control. Understand the importance of the correct preparation of buffers, standard solutions, and other solutions used in the laboratory; include weighing, pipetting, use of volumetric glassware, and making appropriate dilutions of standard and test solutions. Understand the importance of manual dexterity and the safe use of a range of instrumentation and commonly used techniques including: microscopy; spectroscopy; centrifugation; electrophoresis; chromatography; electroanalytical techniques; automated analysis; immunological techniques; enzyme assays and molecular biology techniques; sterilisation techniques and microbial culture; identification and quantitation of microorganisms; microtomy. Know the methods for processing and analysing specimens including methods of specimen identification, the effect of storage on specimens and the safe retrieval of specimens. Know the correct procedures for calibration, for quality control checks and for correcting simple equipment faults. Understand the common causes of non-analytical errors and the implications of these for the test result. Be aware of the role of near-patient testing and non-invasive techniques used in diagnostic pathology and monitoring for patient care. COMPETENCEYou must be able to:a) Perform laboratory procedures and diagnostic tests in accordance with standard operating procedures and understand the health and safety requirements with respect to:o Patient identificationo Sample type o Protective clothingo Hazard data sheets (including COSHH)o Equipmentb) Describe the correct procedure for handling samples that may contain hazard group 2, 3 and 4 pathogens. c) Use the following equipment correctly and safely: o Balanceo Centrifugeo Hand-held pipetteo Fridges and freezerso Pressurised gas storage containersd) Describe the principles and practice of standardisation and calibration and perform these procedures in accordance with standard operating procedures. e) Explain the terms specificity , sensitivity and linearity .f) Explain the significance of reference ranges and reference materials. g) Use the correct scientific units and be able to interconvert units.h) Prepare buffers and other solutions in accordance with standard operating procedures.i) Demonstrate practical skills in instrumentation and techniques relevant to your discipline:o Microscopy o Spectroscopyo Centrifugationo Electrophoretic techniques, including immunoelectrophoresis and blotting o Chromatography o Electroanalytical techniques o Automated analysis: continuous flow, multi-channel, discrete, selective, random access, centrifugal, kinetic end-point o Enzyme assayso Molecular biology techniqueso Sterilisation techniques and microbial culture o Identification and quantitation of microorganism s o Tissue preparation for microscopyj) Confirm that samples have been correctly identified and prepared for intended tests.k) Confirm that samples have been stored correctly and can be retrieved for laboratory investigation if required. l) Produce results consistent with the laboratory procedure.m) Perform calibration and quality control checks.n) Correct simple faults in equipment. o) Describe common causes of non-analytical errors and the implications of these for the test result.p) Describe near-patient testing and non-invasive techniques employed by a pathology laboratory, and other settings such as primary care, for routine diagnosis and monitoring. Suggested training tasks and examples of evidence: Those QUESTIONS needs to be answered. Describe the procedural steps of a specimen through your laboratory, taking into account health and safety issues, equipment used, methodologies, reagent preparation, prioritisation, quality control, result interpretation and generation and possible sources of error, sample storage and disposal.What do you understand by near-patient testing and non-invasive techniques and give an example?CRITICAL APPRAISESIn this part also answer Bold Questions / KNOWLEDGE. 2b.3Be able to formulate specific and appropriate management plans, including the setting of timescales. Understand the requirement to adapt practice to meet the needs of different groups distinguished by, for example, physical, psychological, environmental, cultural or socio-economic factors. Be able to identify the cause of procedural anomalies and implement remedies. KNOWLEDGE Understand the principles of planning, time management and target setting. Understand the need to prioritise workload in line with clinical demands. Understand the multidisciplinary role of pathology in monitoring and diagnosing a range of conditions. Understand the factors that influence access to and use of services available. COMPETENCE You must be able to:a) Work within the departmental agreement of appropriate turn-around times.b) Identify and verify factors affecting the prioritisation of analyses from a range of investigations.c) Be able to analyse an incident and take corrective action. Suggested training tasks and examples of evidence:Write a report of an adverse event or incident that has occurred in your laboratory. Include an analysis of the possible causes and provide a conclusion that considers how this may be prevented from happening again.