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How does a proto-oncogene differ from an oncogene?

How does a proto-oncogene differ from an oncogene?

QUESTION 1 * Tumor suppressor genes function to increase the activity of cells during times of stress or when conditions do not favor cell division. [http://www.bezern.com/] Answer True False 1 points QUESTION 2 * How does a proto-oncogene differ from an oncogene? Answer Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that regulate expression of structural genes; oncogenes code for nucleic acids involved in cell division. [http://www.bezern.com/] Proto-oncogenes control normal cell division; oncogenes contribute to the development of cancer. [http://www.bezern.com/] When oncogenes become damaged, they become proto-oncogenes. [http://www.bezern.com/] Oncogenes activate tumor suppressor genes; proto-oncogenes repress tumor suppressor genes. [http://www.bezern.com/] Proto-oncogenes cause cells to self-destruct when damaged; oncogenes cause damaged cells to repair themselves. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 points QUESTION 3 * The dietary carcinogen aflatoxin can be found in: Answer fresh fruits. [http://www.bezern.com/] red meats. [http://www.bezern.com/] salt. [http://www.bezern.com/] alcohol. [http://www.bezern.com/] raw peanut butter. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 points QUESTION 4 * The most important aspect in the treatment of cancer is that the cancer be diagnosed as early as possible. [http://www.bezern.com/] Early detection of cancer increases the chance that treatment will be successful. [http://www.bezern.com/] Answer True False 1 points QUESTION 5 * How are antiangiogenic drugs used in the treatment of cancer? Answer These drugs stop the replication of DNA so cancer cells cannot reproduce. [http://www.bezern.com/] These drugs stop the growth of blood vessels into the tumor, so the cells “starve” to death. [http://www.bezern.com/] These drugs stop metastasis. [http://www.bezern.com/] These drugs stimulate the immune system. [http://www.bezern.com/] These drugs stimulate the production of free radicals, which kill cancer cells. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 points QUESTION 6 * Which of the following is not true regarding the immune system and cancer? Answer Some cancers can suppress the immune system. [http://www.bezern.com/] Some cancer cells produce abnormal proteins on their cell surfaces that the immune system can use to detect these cells. [http://www.bezern.com/] Cancer cells can be killed by immune system cells. [http://www.bezern.com/] Because cancer cells are the individual’s cells, there is no way for the immune system to differentiate between normal cells and cancer cells. [http://www.bezern.com/] Many cancer cells do not display “self” proteins. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 points QUESTION 7 * In some cases, why doesn’t the immune system recognize and destroy a cancer? Answer Cancer cells that produce abnormal antigens sometimes shed them. [http://www.bezern.com/] Cancer cells have less surface receptors needed for proper activation of T cells. [http://www.bezern.com/] Cancer cells have enough “self” surface markers as to be identified as normal cells. [http://www.bezern.com/] Cancer cells develop from normal cells that cannot regulate cell division. [http://www.bezern.com/] all of the above 1 points QUESTION 8 * The chance that an individual in the United States will experience some form of cancer in their lifetime is: Answer 1 in 1000. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 in 10. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 in one million. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 in 3. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 in 25. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 points QUESTION 9 * Common side effects associated with chemotherapy are due to: Answer fevers induced by the chemicals. [http://www.bezern.com/] death of cancer cells and their subsequent removal from the body. [http://www.bezern.com/] change in blood pH caused by the chemicals. [http://www.bezern.com/] death of normal cells caused by the chemicals. [http://www.bezern.com/] destruction of RNA in most normal cells. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 points QUESTION 10 * Tumor suppressor genes function to Answer prevent gene expression of oncogenes. [http://www.bezern.com/] prevent release of growth factors. [http://www.bezern.com/] slow down unchecked cell growth, differentiation, division, or adhesion. [http://www.bezern.com/] produce proto-oncogenes. [http://www.bezern.com/] stimulate metastasis. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 points QUESTION 11 * A mass of rapidly dividing cells that have potentially lost the ability to regulate cell division is Answer a neoplasm angiogenesis dysplasia hyperplasia keratosis 1 points QUESTION 12 * A mutated form of the p53 gene has been identified in tumors of all of the following types of cancer except: Answer colon. [http://www.bezern.com/] bladder. [http://www.bezern.com/] breast. [http://www.bezern.com/] stomach. [http://www.bezern.com/] skin. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 points QUESTION 13 * Not only does smoking cause lung cancer, it also doubles the risk of which of the following types of cancer? Answer stomach prostate bladder colon brain 1 points QUESTION 14 * Which of the following is not true regarding cervical cancer? Answer The Pap test can be used to diagnose cervical cancer. [http://www.bezern.com/] The risk of developing cervical cancer increases with infection by the herpes simplex virus. [http://www.bezern.com/] Cervical cancer may be one of the first cancers to be prevented with the use of a vaccine. [http://www.bezern.com/] Women with multiple sex partners are at higher risk for cervical cancer. [http://www.bezern.com/] The survival rate for women with cervical cancer is fairly high. [http://www.bezern.com/] 1 points QUESTION 15 * Diet, including what is and what is not consumed, is believed to play a major role in determining whether or not an individual develops cancer. [http://www.bezern.com/] Answer True False

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